Commonly Used Iso Abbreviations
ABO: A, B or O blood type
BIND: Bilirubin-induced Neurological Dysfunction
BPP: Biophysical Profile
C-Section: Cesarean Section
CBC: Complete Blood Count
DAT: Direct Antiglobulin Test (aka Direct Coombs)
FDA: Food and Drug Administration (United States)
FMH: Fetal Maternal Hemorrhage
HDN: Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
Hg or Hgb: Hemoglobin
IAT: Indirect Antiglobulin Test (aka Indirect Coombs)
IGR: Intrauterine Growth Retardation
IUT: Intrauterine Transfusion
IVIG: Intravenous Immunoglobulin
KB: Kleihauer-Betke (test)
MCA: Middle Cerebral Artery (scan)
MFM: Maternal Fetal Medicine
MoM: Multiple of the Median
NICU: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
NST: Non Stress Test
PSV: Peak Systolic Velocity
PUBS: Percutaneous Umbilical Cord Blood Sampling
RBCs: Red Blood Cells
Retic: Reticulocyte count
Rh: Rhesus Factor
This is the short version. See the individual pages or use the search bar below for more detailed information.
Amniocentesis - a procedure where a needle is inserted through the abdomen into the uterus to draw out some of the amniotic fluid. This is then tested for many things, most commonly bilirubin in the case of isoimmunization.
Antibody - Antibodies bind to foreign antigens in order to attack and destroy cells that have the wrong antigens.
Antibody test - See Direct Antiglobulin Test (baby) or Indirect Antiglobulin Test (mother).
Antigen - Antigens are protein surface markers on your cells.
Antigen Test - this can be done on baby or on the father. They will look for the specific antigens on the red blood cells.
Bilirubin - the product that is produced when red blood cells are broken down.
Blood Type - every individual has one of 4 main blood types: A, B, AB, or O. These are based upon the antigens that exist on your blood.
Biophysical Profile - an ultrasound that checks baby’s breathing, large movements, small movements, and amniotic fluid levels.
Cesarean Section - delivery of the baby by surgical means, cutting through the abdominal and uterine wall.
Complete Blood Count - a laboratory test that checks the levels of a variety of blood cells and includes hemoglobin, hematocrit, neutrophil count, reticulocyte count, and more.
Direct Antiglobulin Test (aka Direct Coombs) - this test looks for antibodies that are bound to red blood cells and is typically done on baby. With specific antibodies, this test can be negative and baby still be affected and needing treatment (see the page Coombs Test Exceptions).
Fetal Maternal Hemorrhage - a bleed which allows or has the potential for blood to mix between baby and the mother.
Hematocrit - Hematocrit is a blood test that measures the percentage of the volume of whole blood that is made up of red blood cells and is used as an indicator of anemia.
Hemoglobin - Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. A blood test can tell how much hemoglobin you have in your blood and is used as an indicator of anemia (common in the USA).
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn - This is the official diagnosis for babies born with isoimmunization. Hemo- blood, lytic - destruction.
Indirect Antiglobulin Test (aka Indirect Coombs) - this test looks for antibodies that are free floating in the blood plasma and is commonly done on the mother, though sometimes it is done on the baby to confirm the presence of antibodies (especially if there is a negative direct antiglobulin test). This test can be negative and baby still be affected in the case of some antibodies (see the page Coombs Test Exceptions).
IUGR: Intrauterine Growth Retardation - when baby’s growth is restricted for some reason and he is measuring smaller than he should be.
IUT: Intrauterine Transfusion - a procedure where a needle is inserted through the abdomen and uterus into the baby’s umbilical cord or abdomen to deliver antigen-negative blood.
IVIG: Intravenous Immunoglobulin - a plasma product that is a mixture of antibodies. It works to both help the mother not have as strong of an antibody response and is also given after birth to help the baby overcome the antibodies.
Isoimmunization - the blood disease where a mother’s body recognizes antigens on baby’s cells as foreign and she produces antibodies to destroy the fetus.
Kleihauer-Betke Test - used to see if there has been a maternal-fetal hemorrhage.
Maternal Fetal Medicine - the specialized branch of medicine relating to high risk pregnancies. Also sometimes called a perinatologist.
Middle Cerebral Artery Scan - the ultrasound of a specific artery in the fetal brain to measure how fast the blood is flowing, and determine if the baby is anemic.
MoM: Multiple of the Median - This is the end result of the calculation to see if baby is anemic. Numbers of 1.5 or high indicate the need for a transfusion or delivery.
NICU: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit - this is the specialized area of the hospital where babies who need high levels of care are treated.
Non Stress Test - a procedure where two bands are placed on the mother’s abdomen to monitor contractions, fetal movement, and fetal heart rate. This can not be used as a reliable indicator of anemia.
Plasmapheresis - a procedure where the blood is removed from the mother, the blood cells are returned, and the antibody-rich plasma is removed. This can decrease the antibody titer.
PSV: Peak Systolic Velocity - this is the number gained from the MCA scan. It is used to calculate the Multiple of the Median (MoM) value to check for anemia.
PUBS: Percutaneous Umbilical Cord Blood Sampling - this is done usually as part of an intrauterine transfusion or to (rarely) to determine the need for one. It tells what the fetal hemoglobin/hematocrit is and gives the doctors an idea of how much blood needs transfused.
Retic: Reticulocyte count - this is the measure of how many immature blood cells are in the baby’s bloodstream. These are future RBCs and can give an idea of how quickly baby is making new blood to replace what the antibodies are destroying. It can be used to decide if another transfusion is needed or if you can wait a couple of days and check the hemoglobin again.